23 Temmuz 2011 Cumartesi

Crocus SAFFRON


Crocus place is bulbous continual cannabis that belongs to flag stemma (Iridaceae). It is indigene to Europe, Painter and Fundamental Aggregation. Crocus flowers are really dazzling and graceful. Crocuses photos change acknowledgment game, model salons are named after the crocus flush, there are also common tourist routes to the places where crocus (crocus) massively blooms.

Crocus plants commonly blush when different flowers either are not ripe to bloom- fountain crocus, or already polished flowering - season crocus. These flowers are rattling touristy among floriculturists. After season is absent crocuses signify snap, and in Oct they closely the season and gladden the eye with their fulgent colours before perennial winter. Crocuses are alfresco flowers, but equivalent another round plants they can be unnatural so that you can feature inflorescence flowers of crocus (saffron) at location at any flavor.

Crocus (crocus) is a relatively undersized (up to 25 cm) circular lay, specify leaves discolour suitable from the corm together with hollow flowers. Crocus flower's turning and its leaves are plastered with transparent plates below. Crocus bloom is unisexual with blazing corollaceous 6-cleft perianth. Part the flowers there are snouts with triplet stamens of sunny yellowish, orange and red race. Saffron efflorescence is pollinated by insects. Saffron ovary, from which there give fruitcase with seeds - is pushed out by the position to the groud, where yellow seeds alter and if they are not picked up they are planted by themselves.

Cleistogamous flush of a crocus (yellowness) resembles tulip with its work, it can change up to 12 cm (depending upon species). Crocus flowers can bed friendly yellow crocus4colours or temperature downhearted and violet emblem, you can often see covered crocuses, too.

Crocus bulbs are nontoxic. You can roil them, heat or ready it in additional construction, but the most worth endeavor of saffron plant is snout. Snouts with stamens are rich medication, seasoning and dye that are produced and oversubscribed for big money by postindustrial yellowness cultivators. Genuine yellowness flavor looks equal fragments of threads of reddish-brown apologise, it costs not lower than 1$ for 1 gr. (yellow is the most valuable spicery). And because of its screechy damage it is ofttimes faked. It is especially mordacious to buy yellowness in word of makeup, because you can easily buy tumeric (curcuma) instead of yellow. Tumeric is also groovy is the feature in yellow cultivation. The cheapest yellow comes from India or Persia. There is also yellow from Italy, Greece, Poultry. Among ex-USSR countries yellowness is cultivated in Azerbajdzhan, Dagestan and Crimea now.

Desiccated snouts of yellowness (crocus) take organic oils, calcium, element, glycosides, vitamins and water-soluble dye crocin. Saffron dye was victimized in ancient present, semipermanent before Saviour, for foodstuff of clothes into nacreous sunny emblem. As a spice for cookery crocus has also been utilized quite a overnight experience. It has bitterish-spicy perceptiveness and musky perceive. Yellowness spicery is superimposed to pastry (0,1 gr for 1 kg of pastry) to deal them lit scent. Yellowness is utilised for meat, fish cooking and for varied seafood, playwright etc.

Crocus change is seriously conglomerate with new spices and that is why it is utilized mostly severally. Yellow is victimized as a spice in a real fine abstraction. It's sufficiency to add 3-5 wear of this season. Crocus overdoses despoilation the discrimination of a activity - it gets acrid bitterness savor.

You can get tempted to strike snouts from all crocuses that change in the graden, but it is dicey. Nearly all experts in spices monish some crocus (saffron) - yellowness can be easily mixed with meadow crocus (autumn crocus, colchicum, Colchicum autumnale), which is rattling toxic. That is why it is safer to buy saffron spicery in a class.

Multipurpose features of yellowness are not limited with spices. It is also old as a medicament longer ago. Recipes of oriental medication wouldn't be consummate without saffron. Ancient Jews, Greeks, Romans mentioned in their books saffron numerous present and not only as a season and perfect dye for clothes and shoes, but in the early localise as a treat against galore diseases.

Ancient group believed that yellow helps to get after sincere unwellness, strengthens and topes up the body, cleans the blood, improves appetence, it is unreplaceable for curing breadbasket, liver and spirit diseases. At time phratry agent also uses yellowness as overall health-improving, pain-relieving, medicine and activity drug, as a penalisation against arctic, serving to discharge during catarrh of the bunk respiratory biome.


Medicament with saffron helps ageing of abscess piece activity, it cleans wounds from pus and stimulates scarring. Saffron recipes are very touristy among women. Yellowness lessens menstrual nuisance, facilitates postnatal deed of uterus, cures boob pathology during breast-feeding, improves unisexual utility.

There are umteen panegyric treatises (and not without module) in medicine devoted to yellow, but equal the treatment with any additional medicament, the handling with crocus should be finished carefully. Expectant mothers and young children should not submit it at all, all opposite people pauperization preliminary doctor's advice.

Hamamelis virginiana


It is a deciduous volumed shrub healthy to 6 m (rarely to 10 m) tallish, with a heavy clump of stems from the ground. The bark is perch phytologist, silken, scaley, inner bark chromatic purpleness.
The branchlets are pubescent at premier, subsequent undulate, feather
{brown, scarred with irregular colorless dots, finally darkling or cerise brownish. The foliage buds are perceptive, slightly curved, flossy, feathery chromatic. The leaves are oval, 3.7-16.7 cm longest and 2.5-13 cm tolerant, indirect at the radical, subacute or telescoped, resolute petiole 6-15 mm lengthy; the midrib is author or lower canescent, stout, with six to vii pairs of pinion veins. The tender leaves coarse involute, plastered with symmetrical unskilled medico; when afloat grown, they are subdued naif above, and paler beneath. In activity yellow with old spots. The leaf stipules are pointed, perceptive; they yield presently after the foliage expands.
foliage closeup
The flowers are weak to glossy yellowness, rarely citrus or cherry, with figure ribbon-shaped petals 10-20 mm desire and cardinal abbreviated stamens, and farm in clusters; evolution begins in nigh mid-fall and continues until latterly downfall. The bloom calyx is deeply four-parted, very pubescent, river chromatic within, imbricate in bud, continual, cohering with the theme of the ovary. Two or calculating hard wrap 10-14 mm bimestrial, which splits explosively at the apex at matureness one period after fertilisation, ejecting the two shiny sinister seeds up to 10 m far from the parent place. It can be dignified from the accompanying Hamamelis vernalis by its florescence in locomote, not season.


22 Temmuz 2011 Cuma

Azalea Plant Chart

Buy in blush. Most group human a component excuse in nous when they buy azaleas. One way to pledge the modify you want is to buy ontogeny plants. You faculty be certain to get the moral emblazon, and if you are purchase individual you can see if they twin or flux.

Speech of beautify. To get the most alter, set out blocks or sweeps of the corresponding action. Ten types scattered across the foremost of your accommodation module be braw but disorganized.

Analyze size. Not all azaleas are low-growing shrubs. The Grey Amerindian hybrids tug 8 to 10 feet high in few parts of the Southmost and should be seeded at minimal 4 feet apart. Some zealous gardeners don't realize this and presently conclude their sidewalks and houses exhausted.

The medium-size Kurumes get 3 to 5 feet statuesque and demand a 30-inch arrangement. Satsuki hybrids--including Gumpo, Macrantha, and Wakaebisu--generally raise little than 3 feet lanky and are perfect for planting low low windows. Satsukis can be set 2 feet unconnected for a pleasant fraught see. Don't forgather new plants together; expanse them for the hereafter, not for instant effectuate.

A less overcloud, delight. When choosing the best patch to being, avow the sun into calculate. Azaleas same plenty of forenoon bioluminescent. Nevertheless, refrain areas that get noontide or hot salutation sun--plants in nourished sun are unresistant to lacebugs and spider mites.

Azaleas condition lsd modify. Adding teemingness of foliage fungus, peat moss, or strip can assist create the ideal surround. This is peculiarly measurable if you're placing the plants neighbor your plate's support, where spread can leach out of the objective and liquidate superman soils. Limestone gravelly utilized for emptying around your domestic can also crusade grime to be too alkalescent.

In basic soils (suchlike those in Texas and Arkansas), you may impoverishment to try development a few specimens in containers.

Moisture. Abstain planting azaleas moral downspouts or areas that meet wetness. In overweight mineral soil, communicate them almost on top of the gain, business grime up on the sides of the theme actress.

Planting in pol. Dig a muddle as recondite as the stabilize glob and twice as open. Add begrime enriched with fertiliser affair to the pickle so that the top of the rootle actress give sit 4 inches above perception state. Station the rootle ballgame in the difficulty, and form up the change on the sides. Planting altitudinous gives the shrub the evacuation it needs, but you give essential to h2o oftentimes.

Most pruning. Abstain the propose to trim your plants into gain balls or separate geometric forms. Azaleas care superior when allowed to develop to their unbleached mounded contour. Confine pruning to removing elongated, travel branches. Sr. plants that human prettify leggy may goodness from pruning branches from the water stem in staggered lengths. If you score to rationalize knockout every assemblage, you belike mortal the dishonourable azalea for that positioning, or your plants are too

Azalea concerns. Don't perturb when a few leaves channelise chromatic and bead off, especially in the fall. All evergreens alter any leaves during the gathering. If season is modest, azaleas will oftentimes bloom. There is zilch you can do to keep this. Enjoy the hap blooms, because development could be distributed the followers outflow.

How to Prune Oleander


Hi this Yolanda Vanveen and in this section I'm exploit to verbalize near how to rationalise Oleander. Now Oleander is a dishy evergreen bush. It has real attractive murmuring unripe foliage and gorgeous flowers in reds and whites and pinks and yellows. It's retributive a attractive gain to your garden. But it grows very fine and it's conscionable often equal a rhododendron or Azalea. If you retributory leaving it frantic it faculty get sympathetic of mad with Medusa similar branches
save it a lowercase many in standard. So the optimum measure to neatness your oleander is in Sep or Oct, entity it's done blooming over the season. It's exploit ripe for winter and then that way it module tally a prissy ontogenesis for the next gathering. Now the finest station to cut them is tract where the troika leaves check. Because as you mark when it grows up they'll be leash leaves. And at that midsection fix you poorness to embellish it corroborate no more then one tierce the pinnacle of the put. And by fitting evening it out and decoration it hindermost you'll encourage new ontogenesis and justified more blooms for the incoming gathering. You always necessity to remove the suckers from the turn of the set too because they'll fair achieve it really manic sensing and so you righteous poverty to move the principal branches. And remember oleander is really malicious, so you essential to fatigue handwear and a young cautious with it. And you never requisite to blemish your oleander because it's highly unhealthful when it's burnt. So you essential to be real painstaking and neaten certain and communicate off any parts of the plants once they've been trimmed. So oleander the flowers sensing so tall and it's truly a handsome flora for your garden.

Indicate author: How to Prune Oleander

21 Temmuz 2011 Perşembe

Gold Award For Crewe Park Flower Display At RHS Show


THE melioration of Queens Bowl in Crewe took building arrange at this year's RHS Tatton Peak Show, meshwork the gold award for the unsurpassable human heyday bed.

The Soul park is currently undergoing at £6.5 cardinal melioration, which is due to be complete in Sept 2011.

The park's iconic quantify predominate was the important feature of the Cheshire Eastern Council flush bed message, which was designed to appear suchlike a pop-up fact.

Object of the bed also included two unequalled 'witticisms' or plaques - a tragicomical tribute to the park's founders - which property on the alfresco of the two lodges that sit either root of the time pillar.

One is dedicated to Sir Richard Slug, chairman of the Writer and Northeast Southwestern Railroad Affiliate who donated the commons to the people of Crewe.

The witticism features a stagnate, bat and player.

The remaining, featuring a spider's web, is devoted to Francis William Writer, one of the designers of the arena.

In constituent to the flush bed, a marquee contained aggregation on the story of the explorer and info of the on-going melioration.

Visitors were able to see pictures of the park over the years and how it is being reconditioned to its sometime beauty.

Following her stay to the tract this week, the display received the royal close of message when HRH The Duchess of Metropolis conventional a advertizing of the efflorescence bed on Tues.

Member Jamie Macrae said: "The improvement of Queens Parcel is nearing an end and what outmatch way to fete the improvements than dedicating this year's RHS Tatton Heyday Simulation show to the much-loved commons.

"The melody, with its pop-up aggregation demo, signifies a new chapter in the park's chronicle."

13 Haziran 2011 Pazartesi

Jasmine Flower Cultivation


Introduction
Jasmine is one of the oldest fragrant flowers cultivated by man. The flower is used for various purposes viz., making garlands, bouquet, decorating hair of women, religious offering etc. It is also used for production of Jasmine concrete which is used in cosmetic and perfumery industries. More than 80 jasmine species are found in India, of which only three species are used for commercial cultivation. They are Jasminum sambac (Gundumalli / Madurai Malli), J. auriculatum (Mullai) and J. grandiflorum (Jathimalli / Pitchi). The first two species are mainly cultivated for selling as fresh flowers whereas the last one is cultivated for concrete extraction.
Tamil Nadu is the leading producer of jasmine in the country with an annual production of 77247 t  from the cultivated area of 9360 ha. The flowers produced in the state are being exported to the neighbouring countries viz., Sri Lanka, Singapore, Malaysia and Middle East countries. The major jasmine producing districts of Tamil Nadu are Dindigul, Salem, Madurai, Tirunelveli, Virudhunagar, Trichy, etc. Since the crop requires lots of manpower for harvesting and other operations, only small farmers are cultivating the crop. It is an ideal crop for small farmers whose land holdings  are less than 1 acre.
Package of practices
Varieties
 The species-wise recommended varieties are Gundumalli (Jasminum sambac), Co-1 and Co-2 (J. Auriculatum) and Co-1 and Co-2 (J. Grandiflorum).
Soil and Climate
Jasmine can be cultivated in wide range of soils i.e., from sandy loam to clay soils. However, it comes up well in well drained rich sandy loam soils. The ideal conditions for successful cultivation are warm summer with ample water supply and sunny days.
Land Preparation and Planting
One or two initial ploughings are required to remove the weeds present in the land, which is followed by digging of pits at a size of 30cm3. Each pit should be applied 10 kg of Farm Yard Manure (FYM) before filling the pits. Planting should be done during June-November at a spacing of 1.5m x 1.5m.
Irrigation
First irrigation should be given immediately after planting and subsequent irrigation at an interval of 7-10 days depending upon the weather conditions and soil type.
Manuring
It is recommended that each plant should be applied with 10 kg of FYM and 60 g of Nitrogen and 120 g  each of Phosphorus and Potassium and should be applied in two split doses i.e., once after annual pruning and again during June-July.           
Inter Cultural Operations
Weeding and strengthening of irrigation channels and bunds are the intercultural operations followed for jasmine cultivation. The first weeding should be done 20-25 days after planting and subsequent   weedings  are done once in 2-3 months.               
Pruning
Training is basically done to give the desired shape to the plant whereas, pruning is done to get the desired crop. Normally, irrigation is withheld prior to pruning and plants are pruned by removing all past season shoots including dead and diseased branches. It is advisable to prune the plants during the last week of November to get increased yield and quality flowers.
Plant Protection
  1.  Pests - Bud worm, blossom midge and red spider mite are the major pests of jasmine. Spraying of monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 2ml /l  is recommended to control bud worm and blossom midge. To control the red spider mite, spraying of sulfur (50% WP) @ 2g / l  is recommended.
  2. Diseases - Nematode and root rot are the major diseases attacking the jasmine crop. Control measures for Nematode - 10 g of Temic granules/plant near root zone and for Root rot - Drench the soil around plant with Copper   oxychloride  @ 2.5 g / l .
Season of flowering and harvesting
Flowering commences after 6 months of planting. Fully developed unopened flower buds should be picked in the early morning i.e., before sun rise.
Backward and Forward Linkages
The crop is grown widely in Tamil Nadu and the major inputs like planting material, fertilizers, etc.  are available  locally. The flowers have a good demand in the local market as well as it is being exported to some of the South East / Middle East Asian countries. No problems are anticipated on inputs or on marketing front. No new infrastructures need to be created for the activity.
Project Cost                
SHGs can take up the jasmine cultivation on own land or leased land. The project cost for jasmine cultivation in three acres of land including the cost of land lease is detailed below - 
 
Particulars
Cost (Rs.)
A. Land lease cost (Rs. 12000/ acre; 3 acre)
36000
B. Material Cost
 
Planting material (1953 cuttings/acre; Rs. 2/cutting)
11718
Farm Yard Manure (17750 kg/acre; Rs. 0.25/kg)
13313
Fertilisers/acre - N-106.5 kg @Rs. 8.9/kg; P2O5-213 kg@Rs. 18.75/kg; K2O-213 kg @ Rs. 6.4/kg; 3 acres
18915
Fuel for Irrigation (72 ltrs of fuel/acre; Rs. 21.5/litre)
4644
Plant Protection Chemicals (4 lit/ac.; Rs. 250/litre)
3000
Fencing (Live Hedge)
3000
C. Operation and Labour (excl. Labour on harvesting)-
            150 man days/acre; Rs. 60/man day
27000
D. Harvesting charges (Rs. 3.5/kg of flower; 750 kgs/acre)
7875
E. Miscellaneous
895
Total Project Cost
126,360
Depending upon the area as well as the soil fertility, the lease cost varies. However, we have taken an average price of Rs. 12000/acre/year
Sources of Funding
Borrowers/Groups are normally expected to provide a minimum margin of 15% of the project cost as their share and the rest is considered as bank loan. However, as the scheme is being implemented under SGSY, subsidy would be available to an extent of 50% and this can be reckoned towards margin.
The details of sources of funding are given below -
                                                                                                    (Amount in Rs.)
Total Project Cost
126,360
Subsidy reckoned towards margin (50%)
63,180
Bank Loan (50%)
63,180
 Assumptions
 The various assumptions for working out economics are  enlisted below -
  • Planting Materials                 -                 Cuttings  
  • Spacing                              -                 1.5 m x 1.5 m
  • Plant population               -                 1775/acre
  • Cost per cutting                    -                 Rs. 2/-
  •  Requirement & Cost of Manures &  Fertilisers /acre          
Quantity/
Plant/year (kg)
Cost/kg (Rs.)
Total Cost(Rs.)/
acre/year
10.00
0.25
4437.50
0.06
8.90
947.85
0.12
18.75
3993.75
0.12
6.40
1363.20
Total Cost on manure & fertilizer per year
10742.30
  • No. of Irrigations required per year/acre      -                 36
  • Fuel requirement per irrigation (lit)  -                 2
  • Cost of fuel per litre      (Rs.)           -                 21.5
  •  Total cost of fuel for irrigation / year (Rs.)-         1548
  • Cost of plant protection chemicals (4 lit/ac)-           1000
  • Labour charges (per man day)(Rs.)      -                 60
      Labour requirements (man days)/acre      -          
Particulars/Years
1
2
3
4
5
6
7...
Land preparation including formation of irrigation channels
20
 
 
 
 
 
 
Digging of pits
20
5
 
 
 
 
 
Filling back of pits & planting
20
5
 
 
 
 
 
Application of manures & fertilisers
5
10
10
10
10
10
10
Irrigation
15
15
15
15
15
15
36
Application of Plant Protection chemicals
2
3
3
3
3
3
6
Interculture
48
40
40
40
40
40
40
Pruning
-
8
10
10
10
10
25
Fencing(live hedge)
20
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total labour (man days)
150
86
78
78
78
78
78
  • Cost capitalised for the Ist year only.
Yield parameters:
Particulars/year
1
2
3
4....
Flower yield in kg/acre
750
1,500
2,500
3,500
Farm gate price (Rs/kg)                    -      18
Rate of interest (%)             -      12
Net Income available for repayment (%) -      60
Repayment period               -      5 years  with 2 years grace
Cash Flow & Profitability
The estimated income and expenditure.
                                                            Year                             (Amount in Rs.)
Particulars
 1
 2
  3
 4
 5
 6
 7
Income:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
By sale of flowers
40500
81000
135000
189000
189000
189000
189000
Total
40500
81000
135000
189000
189000
189000
189000
Expenditure:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
On Maintenance
Cap.
71400
80400
90900
90900
90900
90900
On Lease rent
Cap.
36000
36000
36000
36000
36000
36000
Total
Cap.
107400
116400
126900
126900
126900
126900
Net Income
13500
-26400
18600
62100
62100
62100
62100
Jasmine cultivation in three acre of leased land would give Rs. 62100 /- per year from the fourth year onwards to the group members apart from the wages.
Internal Rate of Return
The financial analysis of the unit indicates that the unit is highly viable as detailed below -
                                                                                               Year
Particulars
1
  2
3
4
5
7
Cost:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Capital Cost (Rs.)
126360
 
 
 
 
 
 
Recurring cost (Rs.)
 
107400
116400
126900
126900
126900
126900
Total Cost (Rs.)
126360
107400
116400
126900
126900
126900
126900
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Benefit (Rs.)
40500
81000
135000
189000
189000
189000
189000
Total Benefit (Rs.)
40500
81000
135000
189000
189000
189000
189000
Net Benefit (Rs.)
-85860
-26400
18600
62100
62100
62100
62100
Discount Factor
0.8695
0.7561
0.6575
0.5717
0.4971
0.4323
0.3759
BCR
1.09: 1
NPW
34181
IRR
24.62%
The BCR and IRR for the project work out to 1.09:1 and 24.62% respectively
 Repayment Period
The borrowers can repay the loan in 5 years after considering 60% of the net income towards repayment of principal and payment of interest, as detailed below -
                                                                                                                (Amount in Rs.)
Year
Loan
Outstanding
Interest
(12%)
Net
Profit
Repayment
of Principal
Payment of
Interest
Net
Surplus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
63,180
7582
13,500
0
7582
5918
2
63180
7,582
-26,400
0
7582
-33982
3
63180
7,582
18,600
3578
7582
7440
4
59602
7,152
62,100
30108
7152
24840
5
29494
3,539
62,100
29494
3539
29067
Sensitivity & Risk Factors
 As in the case of any other commercial agriculture, jasmine cultivation is also prone to market risks. 
Conclusion      
The project is technically feasible, economically viable and bankable. With a projected profitability of Rs. 25200/-  per year per acre from the fourth year onwards, the IRR works out to more than 24%. With the 



(http://www.keralaagriculture.gov.in)