13 Haziran 2011 Pazartesi

Jasmine Flower Cultivation


Introduction
Jasmine is one of the oldest fragrant flowers cultivated by man. The flower is used for various purposes viz., making garlands, bouquet, decorating hair of women, religious offering etc. It is also used for production of Jasmine concrete which is used in cosmetic and perfumery industries. More than 80 jasmine species are found in India, of which only three species are used for commercial cultivation. They are Jasminum sambac (Gundumalli / Madurai Malli), J. auriculatum (Mullai) and J. grandiflorum (Jathimalli / Pitchi). The first two species are mainly cultivated for selling as fresh flowers whereas the last one is cultivated for concrete extraction.
Tamil Nadu is the leading producer of jasmine in the country with an annual production of 77247 t  from the cultivated area of 9360 ha. The flowers produced in the state are being exported to the neighbouring countries viz., Sri Lanka, Singapore, Malaysia and Middle East countries. The major jasmine producing districts of Tamil Nadu are Dindigul, Salem, Madurai, Tirunelveli, Virudhunagar, Trichy, etc. Since the crop requires lots of manpower for harvesting and other operations, only small farmers are cultivating the crop. It is an ideal crop for small farmers whose land holdings  are less than 1 acre.
Package of practices
Varieties
 The species-wise recommended varieties are Gundumalli (Jasminum sambac), Co-1 and Co-2 (J. Auriculatum) and Co-1 and Co-2 (J. Grandiflorum).
Soil and Climate
Jasmine can be cultivated in wide range of soils i.e., from sandy loam to clay soils. However, it comes up well in well drained rich sandy loam soils. The ideal conditions for successful cultivation are warm summer with ample water supply and sunny days.
Land Preparation and Planting
One or two initial ploughings are required to remove the weeds present in the land, which is followed by digging of pits at a size of 30cm3. Each pit should be applied 10 kg of Farm Yard Manure (FYM) before filling the pits. Planting should be done during June-November at a spacing of 1.5m x 1.5m.
Irrigation
First irrigation should be given immediately after planting and subsequent irrigation at an interval of 7-10 days depending upon the weather conditions and soil type.
Manuring
It is recommended that each plant should be applied with 10 kg of FYM and 60 g of Nitrogen and 120 g  each of Phosphorus and Potassium and should be applied in two split doses i.e., once after annual pruning and again during June-July.           
Inter Cultural Operations
Weeding and strengthening of irrigation channels and bunds are the intercultural operations followed for jasmine cultivation. The first weeding should be done 20-25 days after planting and subsequent   weedings  are done once in 2-3 months.               
Pruning
Training is basically done to give the desired shape to the plant whereas, pruning is done to get the desired crop. Normally, irrigation is withheld prior to pruning and plants are pruned by removing all past season shoots including dead and diseased branches. It is advisable to prune the plants during the last week of November to get increased yield and quality flowers.
Plant Protection
  1.  Pests - Bud worm, blossom midge and red spider mite are the major pests of jasmine. Spraying of monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 2ml /l  is recommended to control bud worm and blossom midge. To control the red spider mite, spraying of sulfur (50% WP) @ 2g / l  is recommended.
  2. Diseases - Nematode and root rot are the major diseases attacking the jasmine crop. Control measures for Nematode - 10 g of Temic granules/plant near root zone and for Root rot - Drench the soil around plant with Copper   oxychloride  @ 2.5 g / l .
Season of flowering and harvesting
Flowering commences after 6 months of planting. Fully developed unopened flower buds should be picked in the early morning i.e., before sun rise.
Backward and Forward Linkages
The crop is grown widely in Tamil Nadu and the major inputs like planting material, fertilizers, etc.  are available  locally. The flowers have a good demand in the local market as well as it is being exported to some of the South East / Middle East Asian countries. No problems are anticipated on inputs or on marketing front. No new infrastructures need to be created for the activity.
Project Cost                
SHGs can take up the jasmine cultivation on own land or leased land. The project cost for jasmine cultivation in three acres of land including the cost of land lease is detailed below - 
 
Particulars
Cost (Rs.)
A. Land lease cost (Rs. 12000/ acre; 3 acre)
36000
B. Material Cost
 
Planting material (1953 cuttings/acre; Rs. 2/cutting)
11718
Farm Yard Manure (17750 kg/acre; Rs. 0.25/kg)
13313
Fertilisers/acre - N-106.5 kg @Rs. 8.9/kg; P2O5-213 kg@Rs. 18.75/kg; K2O-213 kg @ Rs. 6.4/kg; 3 acres
18915
Fuel for Irrigation (72 ltrs of fuel/acre; Rs. 21.5/litre)
4644
Plant Protection Chemicals (4 lit/ac.; Rs. 250/litre)
3000
Fencing (Live Hedge)
3000
C. Operation and Labour (excl. Labour on harvesting)-
            150 man days/acre; Rs. 60/man day
27000
D. Harvesting charges (Rs. 3.5/kg of flower; 750 kgs/acre)
7875
E. Miscellaneous
895
Total Project Cost
126,360
Depending upon the area as well as the soil fertility, the lease cost varies. However, we have taken an average price of Rs. 12000/acre/year
Sources of Funding
Borrowers/Groups are normally expected to provide a minimum margin of 15% of the project cost as their share and the rest is considered as bank loan. However, as the scheme is being implemented under SGSY, subsidy would be available to an extent of 50% and this can be reckoned towards margin.
The details of sources of funding are given below -
                                                                                                    (Amount in Rs.)
Total Project Cost
126,360
Subsidy reckoned towards margin (50%)
63,180
Bank Loan (50%)
63,180
 Assumptions
 The various assumptions for working out economics are  enlisted below -
  • Planting Materials                 -                 Cuttings  
  • Spacing                              -                 1.5 m x 1.5 m
  • Plant population               -                 1775/acre
  • Cost per cutting                    -                 Rs. 2/-
  •  Requirement & Cost of Manures &  Fertilisers /acre          
Quantity/
Plant/year (kg)
Cost/kg (Rs.)
Total Cost(Rs.)/
acre/year
10.00
0.25
4437.50
0.06
8.90
947.85
0.12
18.75
3993.75
0.12
6.40
1363.20
Total Cost on manure & fertilizer per year
10742.30
  • No. of Irrigations required per year/acre      -                 36
  • Fuel requirement per irrigation (lit)  -                 2
  • Cost of fuel per litre      (Rs.)           -                 21.5
  •  Total cost of fuel for irrigation / year (Rs.)-         1548
  • Cost of plant protection chemicals (4 lit/ac)-           1000
  • Labour charges (per man day)(Rs.)      -                 60
      Labour requirements (man days)/acre      -          
Particulars/Years
1
2
3
4
5
6
7...
Land preparation including formation of irrigation channels
20
 
 
 
 
 
 
Digging of pits
20
5
 
 
 
 
 
Filling back of pits & planting
20
5
 
 
 
 
 
Application of manures & fertilisers
5
10
10
10
10
10
10
Irrigation
15
15
15
15
15
15
36
Application of Plant Protection chemicals
2
3
3
3
3
3
6
Interculture
48
40
40
40
40
40
40
Pruning
-
8
10
10
10
10
25
Fencing(live hedge)
20
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total labour (man days)
150
86
78
78
78
78
78
  • Cost capitalised for the Ist year only.
Yield parameters:
Particulars/year
1
2
3
4....
Flower yield in kg/acre
750
1,500
2,500
3,500
Farm gate price (Rs/kg)                    -      18
Rate of interest (%)             -      12
Net Income available for repayment (%) -      60
Repayment period               -      5 years  with 2 years grace
Cash Flow & Profitability
The estimated income and expenditure.
                                                            Year                             (Amount in Rs.)
Particulars
 1
 2
  3
 4
 5
 6
 7
Income:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
By sale of flowers
40500
81000
135000
189000
189000
189000
189000
Total
40500
81000
135000
189000
189000
189000
189000
Expenditure:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
On Maintenance
Cap.
71400
80400
90900
90900
90900
90900
On Lease rent
Cap.
36000
36000
36000
36000
36000
36000
Total
Cap.
107400
116400
126900
126900
126900
126900
Net Income
13500
-26400
18600
62100
62100
62100
62100
Jasmine cultivation in three acre of leased land would give Rs. 62100 /- per year from the fourth year onwards to the group members apart from the wages.
Internal Rate of Return
The financial analysis of the unit indicates that the unit is highly viable as detailed below -
                                                                                               Year
Particulars
1
  2
3
4
5
7
Cost:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Capital Cost (Rs.)
126360
 
 
 
 
 
 
Recurring cost (Rs.)
 
107400
116400
126900
126900
126900
126900
Total Cost (Rs.)
126360
107400
116400
126900
126900
126900
126900
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Benefit (Rs.)
40500
81000
135000
189000
189000
189000
189000
Total Benefit (Rs.)
40500
81000
135000
189000
189000
189000
189000
Net Benefit (Rs.)
-85860
-26400
18600
62100
62100
62100
62100
Discount Factor
0.8695
0.7561
0.6575
0.5717
0.4971
0.4323
0.3759
BCR
1.09: 1
NPW
34181
IRR
24.62%
The BCR and IRR for the project work out to 1.09:1 and 24.62% respectively
 Repayment Period
The borrowers can repay the loan in 5 years after considering 60% of the net income towards repayment of principal and payment of interest, as detailed below -
                                                                                                                (Amount in Rs.)
Year
Loan
Outstanding
Interest
(12%)
Net
Profit
Repayment
of Principal
Payment of
Interest
Net
Surplus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
63,180
7582
13,500
0
7582
5918
2
63180
7,582
-26,400
0
7582
-33982
3
63180
7,582
18,600
3578
7582
7440
4
59602
7,152
62,100
30108
7152
24840
5
29494
3,539
62,100
29494
3539
29067
Sensitivity & Risk Factors
 As in the case of any other commercial agriculture, jasmine cultivation is also prone to market risks. 
Conclusion      
The project is technically feasible, economically viable and bankable. With a projected profitability of Rs. 25200/-  per year per acre from the fourth year onwards, the IRR works out to more than 24%. With the 



(http://www.keralaagriculture.gov.in)

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